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Indian National Congress Session 1885-1947
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Indian National Congress Session 1885-1947
The Indian National Congress was created in 1885 by Allan Octavian Hume, Dinshaw Edulji Wacha, and Dadabhai Naoroji. The Indian National Congress met for the first time on December 28–30, 1885, in Bombay, under the presidency of Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee.
In 1885, the Indian National Congress was founded. Mr. Womesh Chunder Bonnerjee was the first president of the Indian National Congress. The Indian National Congress had a year-long break between sessions. We have included a list of all the sessions of the Indian National Congress before to India’s independence in this article.
The Indian National Congress was founded as a safety valve for civil and political debate among Indians who were literate. These INC sessions are tested in a variety of competitive tests. As a result, applicants must read them thoroughly.
- W.C. Bonnerjee was the President of the Bombay session in 1885 and 1892. He was the Indian National Congress’s first president. In 1892, Bonnerjee served as the president of the INC’s Allahabad session.
- Dadabhai Naoroji presided over the Calcutta Conference in 1886 and 1893. In 1893, he was also the president of the Lahore session. He was known as the Grand Old Man of India and was a Parsi philosopher, educator, cotton dealer, and social reformer.
- The president of the Madras conference in 1887 was Badruddin Tyabji.
- In 1888, George Yule, the first British president of the INC, presided over the Allahabad session.
- 1889, 1910: At the Bombay session in 1889 and the Allahabad conference in 1910, William Wedderburn served as president.
- Pherozeshah Mehta presided over the INC’s Calcutta session in 1890. He was a prominent lawyer in the Bombay presidency, and the British government knighted him for his services.
- In the year 1891, Anandacharlu presided over the Nagpur session.
- Alfred Webb was the president of the Madras Conference in 1894.
- Surendranath Banerjee presided over the INC’s Poona session in 1895 and its Ahmedabad conference in 1902. Rashtraguru was the moniker given to him.
- The president of the Calcutta session in 1896 was Rahimtulla M Sayani. He was one of INC’s founding members and the organization’s second Muslim president. He belonged from the Khoja community and was an Aga Khan devotee.
- C. Sankaran Nair was the president of the INC’s Amraoti conference in 1897. He is the only Keralite to have held the office to date. He had lambasted the foreign administration’s highhandedness and urged for self-governance as a lawyer, jurist, and activist.
- 1898: At the Madras conference in 1898, Anandamohan Bose, an attorney by profession, served as president.
- The Lucknow meeting was presided over by Romesh Chunder Dutt in 1899. He worked as a civil servant, writer, Mahabharata and Ramayana translator, and economic historian.
- In the year 1900, Sir Narayan Ganesh Chandavarkar was the president of the INC’s Lahore session. He was one of the most prominent Hindu reformers in western India at the time. He served on the Bombay High Court bench and was knighted in 1910.
- Dinshaw Edulji Wacha, one of INC’s founding members, was president of the organization’s Calcutta session in 1901.
- INC’s 1903 congress in Madras was presided over by Lalmohan Ghosh. He was a well-known Bengali lawyer.
- The president of the 1904 meeting in Bombay was Henry John Stedman Cotton. He was a long-serving Indian public servant who sympathised with Indian nationalist ideals.
- The Benares Conference was presided over by Gopal Krishna Gokhale in 1905. After the party divided into garam dal and naram dal, he became the leader of the moderate group (naram dal). After returning to India, Mahatma Gandhi joined Gokhale’s group to head the independence campaign.
- Rashbihari Ghosh presided over the INC’s Surat conference in 1907 and its Madras session in 1908. He was a politician, a lawyer, a social activist, and a philanthropist all at the same time. He was a member of the moderates and was one of the most outspoken opponents of radicalism or extremism.
- Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya was the president of the INC’s Lahore conference in 1909 and Delhi conference in 1918. He is credited with building Asia’s largest residential institution, Benares Hindu University. Rabindranath Tagore bestowed the title mahamana on him, and he was also posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna.
- The Calcutta session of 1911 was presided over by Bishan Narayan Dar.
- In 1912, Rao Bahadur Raghunath Narasinha Mudholkar was elected president of the INC’s Bankipore session. He was a strong supporter of female education, widow remarriage, and untouchability elimination. He was also a Companion (CIE) of Queen Victoria’s Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, a chivalric order founded in 1878.
- The INC’s Karachi session in 1913 was presided over by Nawab Syed Muhammad Bahadur. He was the first Muslim sheriff of Madras and was born into one of the wealthiest families in south India.
- At the INC’s Madras session in 1914, Bhupendra Nath Bose was elected president. He was also the first president of the Mohun Bagan Athletic Club.
- In 1915, the Bombay meeting was presided over by Lord Satyendra Prasanna Sinha, the first baron of Raipur. He was knighted subsequently and became the first Indian to be elected to the House of Lords in the United Kingdom. Sinha’s ennoblement also aided the passage of a bill that became the Government of India Act 1919.
- Ambica Charan Mazumdar served as president of the INC in Lucknow in 1916. During this session, the INC and the Muslim League inked the historic Lucknow Pact. It was also the session in which the moderate and extreme factions of the Congress reconciled.
- 1917: Annie Besant, the first woman president of INC, presided over the 1917 session in Calcutta. Besant was an Indian self-rule advocate, sociologist, theosophist, and social reformer.
- 1918: In Bombay, Syed Hasan Imam presided over the Special Session. The meeting was called to discuss the divisive Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms Scheme. He was a member of the Khilafat movement as well.
- Motilal Nehru presided over the INC sessions in Amritsar and Kolkata in 1919 and 1928, respectively. Motilal Nehru was an accomplished lawyer and the Nehru-Gandhi family’s original patriarch. He presided over the second session, which saw a squabble between two factions of the party: one that accepted dominion status and the other that demanded complete independence. He was also a member of the Swaraj party, the civil disobedience movement, and the non-cooperation movement. Despite his friendship with Mahatma Gandhi, he was a harsh critic of him.
- In the year 1920, Lala Lajpat Rai presided over the Calcutta session. Punjab Kesari was his nickname. In 1923, as a freedom fighter, he controversially requested that India be partitioned into Hindu and Muslim states. He was also the founder of the Arya Samaj, one of the Hindu reform organisations.
- In Nagpur in 1920, C. Vijayaraghavachariar presided over the Special Session. He was an orthodox Vaishnavite who was charged with inciting religious disturbances but ultimately cleared. He was a personal friend of AO Hume’s and was instrumental in the creation of the Swaraj Constitution. He was also a member of Congress’s Propaganda Committee.
- The 1921 session in Ahmedabad was presided over by Hakim Ajmal Khan. He was a founding member of Jamia Millia Islamia University in Delhi, as well as the Ayurvedic and Unani Tibbia (medical) College. He is the only individual to be elected president of the Indian National Congress, the Muslim League, and the All India Khilafat Committee all at the same time.
- In 1922, Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das presided over the INC’s Gaya convention. He was a senior member of the Indian National Movement and a founding leader of the Swaraj Party in Bengal. He was a lawyer by profession.
- In 1923, Mohammad Ali Jouhar was the president of the INC’s Kakinada session.
- Abul Kalam Azad presided over the Delhi Special Session in 1923 and 1940-46. He was also elected to preside over the Ramgarh session in 1940. The leader, known as Maulana Azad, was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna. He was a poet, journalist, activist, and freedom warrior who was a revolutionary. The University Grants Commission and the Indian Institutes of Technology were both founded by him. He led the establishment of a national education system that provided free education to children up to the primary school level.
- In 1924, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi presided over the INC’s Belgaum session. Gandhi was a leader in a number of initiatives, including nonviolent civil disobedience, non-cooperation, and the Swadesi movement. Gandhi is one of the most influential members of the Indian nationalist movement mainly because of the broad support and impact that his vision of nonviolence, religious pluralism, swaraj, and upliftment of the oppressed has gained.
- In Kanpur, Sarojini Naidu presided over the 1925 session.
- The president of the Gauhati session of Congress in 1926 was S Srinivasa Iyengar. From 1916 to 1920, he served as the Advocate-General of the Madras Presidency.
- The Madras session was presided over by Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari in 1927. He was also one of the founders of Jamia Millia Islamia University and served as president of the Muslim League. He served as chancellor from 1928 to 1936.
- Jawaharlal Nehru presided over the Lahore and Karachi sessions in 1929, 1930, 1936, 1937, 1946 (July-September), and 1951-1954. He also presided over the sessions at Lucknow in 1936 and Faizpur in 1937. In 1951 and 1952, he presided over the Delhi sessions, and in 1953 and 1954, he presided over the Hyderabad and Calcutta sessions.
- In 1929, Jawaharlal Nehru was not elected president, but he had the support of the powerful Motilal Nehru. He was, nonetheless, a pivotal role in Indian politics and the independence fight. Gandhi mentored the first prime minister of independent India, who was a qualified barrister. Because of his roots in the Kashmiri Pandit community, he is known as Pandit Nehru.
- In 1931, the Karachi session was presided over by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. During his presidency of the meeting, the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was ratified. Patel was a key actor in the Indian independence movement, and he is credited with convincing hundreds of provinces to join together to establish India.
- The Calcutta session was presided over by Nellie Sengupta in 1933.
- Rajendra Pasad was the president of the INC’s Bombay and Lucknow conferences in 1934 and 1935, respectively. Rajendra Prasad went on to become India’s first president when the country gained independence.
- Subhas Chandra Bose was the president of the Haripura session of Congress in 1938 and 1939. In 1939, he was elected president of the Jabalpur session, but he had to resign. Rajendra Prasad took his position. Bose formed the Indian National Army (INA) in opposition to the INC’s pacifist movement. His campaign aspired to liberate India with the help of the Indian National Army (INA). He is one of India’s most well-known liberation fighters.
- The Meerut session was presided over by J.B. Kripalani in 1947. He was the president of the INC at the transition of sovereignty from Britain to India in 1947, and he was one of Mahatma Gandhi’s most fervent disciples.
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